The Boxer Rebellion 1900
In 1898 the Yellow River dykes broke
Leads to the flooding of Shandong province, causing widespread hunger and refugees.
The government failed to provide much help
Due to the focus on the 100 days reformsLocal upset over behaviour of Christian missionaries
In particular, German missionaries used the principle of extraterritoriality for their converts, which led to resentment, as well as giving them a bad reputation when shady characters converted to Christianity to avoid punishment in Qing courts.
The boxers practiced spirit possession, and thought themselves invulnerable to modern weapons (they weren't!)
Move to capital city
Violence against the foreigners began to start so after governor of Shandong suppressed them in 1899, the boxers began moving to the capital.
Involvement of foreign powers
The foreign governments sent troops to protect the missionaries.
Declaration of war
Cixi, thinking the people were behind her, declared war on the foreign powers.
Siege of the legation
Foreigners in the capital barricaded themselves into the cathedral and the legation quarter for safety.
Foreign troops arrive
An eight-nation force, principally manned by Japanese troops, sent 20,000 troops to lift the siege, and by the end of the year there were 45,000 foreign troops in China.
The Court flees
Cixi and the emperor fled by cart to Xi’an hundreds of miles away.
The boxers disappeared into the countryside and the foreign troops spent six months raiding villages and towns looking for them. There were many cases of misconduct on the part of the Western troops and mistreatment of Chinese civilians which further spread resentment against the foreign powers.
The Boxer Protocol: China given these penalties:
The Boxer Rebellion Case Study -Absolutely fantastic, includes historiography A MUST READ!
The Boxer Uprising -Funfront, comprehensive
In Our Time: The Boxers -Downloadable podcast
Photography Cixi 1903-1904 -From M.I.T. an amazing window into the past
Chinese Historiography of the Boxers
More on historiography of the Boxers -Includes fantastic Lenin Quote
Boxers an overview of historiography -From History Today Password protected
The Boxer Rebellion from the Economist -Very interesting modern perspective
The Boxer Rebellion from Alpha History
Primary Source: The Boxers