The Treaty of Versailles and China 1919
"Double-dealing by the Western Allies and Chinese politicians who had made secret deals with Japan led to an unwelcome discovery for the Chinese diplomats at the Paris Peace Conference: the former German colonies on Chinese soil would not be returned to Chinese sovereignty, but instead would be handed over to the Japanese, who had also entered the war on the Allied side in 1917."
The Shandong Settlement -Good background and overview
The Chinese Labour Corps in WW1 -Videos from CCTV
China's Misrepresentation of the Past: The Shandong Province and the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 -Extremely interesting and controversial book review, excellent to contrast with the link below
Ninety Years of Chinese Nationalism -excellent to contrast with the link above
What was the impact of Versailles - Point 1 covers China
Short Term Impact of the Treaty of Versailles on china-Dr J.A.G. roberts
"In Shanghai, the news of the Versailles settlement prompted businesspeople and students to organize a Citizens’ Association, which called for a boycott of trade with Japan, the removal of the three pro-Japanese officials..... In January 1919, Chen Duxiu was still arguing that only science and democracy could ‘cure the dark maladies in Chinese politics, morality, learning and thought’, but he, like many others, lost faith in Western democracy after the betrayal of China at Versailles."
Question: i) Which does Roberts see as the major impacts of the Treaty of Versailles on China? ii) Which impacts are short-term and which are longer? iii) Which impacts are more historically significant? Why?