Yuan Shikai and the failure of the republic
Feb 1912-Last Qing child emperor abdicates
March 1912- Sun Yat Sen resigns as provisional president of the Republic in favour of Yuan Shikai
March 1912- Yuan Shikai moves capital of republic from Nanjing to Beijing (his power base)
10 March 1912- Yuan Shikai becomes president of the Chinese republic
Feb 1913- National Assembly elections held, The KMT win and Song Jiaoren of the KMT looks likely to be prime minister
March 1913- Song Jiaoren assassinated (his killers are also killed in police custody) Yuan Shikai probably behind the conspiracy.
November 1913- Sun Yat Sen flees to Japan
January 1914- Chinese parliament dissolved by Yuan Shikai
November 1915 -Yuan Shikai declares himself emperor, provinces rebel
June 1916- Yuan Shikai dies
task 1: Which Interpretation do Diana Lary and Rana Mitter broadly support?
"The most notable challenge to the idea that the new Republic of China was an independent, sovereign, and modern state was the reality that foreigners still had right of veto or control over much of China".
- Use the powerpoint below to help you develop your own view.
- Which interpretation do you think fits the facts best?
- Academic historical conclusions are normally quite tentative, which elements of the other interpretation do you think are important and why?
- Try one of the essay questions below
- Young, Ernest P. "Politics in the aftermath of revolution: the era of Yuan Shih-k'ai, 1912–16", The Cambridge History of China. 1sted. Vol. 12. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. 208-255. Cambridge Histories Online. Web. 31 December 2013.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CHOL9780521235419.005
- Lary, D. "China's Republic (New Approaches to Asian History)"
- Mitter, R. "Modern China: A Very Short Introduction."
Possible questions to try
- To what extent can the failure of the Chinese republic be attributed to events surrounding the revolution of 1911-12?
- What role did Yuan Shikai play in the failure of the Chinese republic?
- Was there really a revolution in China in 1911?
- How did Yuan Shikai betray the 1912 Chinese Republic?
- Was Yuan Shikai responsible for warlordism in China in the early twentieth century?